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Chapter 3, Part 3


Gulf War Weather (Continued)

7 February 1991

A low pressure system over northeastern Saudi Arabia resulted in afternoon and evening rainshowers and thunderstorms over Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf. The subtropical jet stream brought middle and upper cloudiness to central Saudi Arabia. Weak high pressure was centered over Iraq.

Scattered low clouds, with some middle and high clouds that were occasionally broken, extended across central Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf. Ceilings varied from 10,000 to 25,000 feet. Broken low clouds with bases at 2,000 feet were evident early in the morning over western Iraq. Light afternoon rainshowers fell over east-central Saudi Arabia. Isolated late evening thunderstorms were reported over the west-central part of the Persian Gulf. Tops were about 30,000-35,000 feet. Visibilities in northwestern Saudi Arabia were 7-9 km in haze and suspended dust. Suspended dust also reduced early morning visibilities in east-central Saudi Arabia to 4,800 meters.

Early morning skies were generally clear, but scattered middle clouds from the west moved into central Iraq and Kuwait by mid-morning. The middle clouds over central Iraq went scattered to broken at 10,000 feet by late morning. Skies became scattered by early afternoon. By early evening, cloud cover over Kuwait and southeast Iraq became scattered, variable to broken, at 10,000-18,000 feet. Isolated evening thunderstorms developed over extreme northern Kuwait; tops reached 30,000 feet.

Early morning winds were light and variable, becoming northwesterly to northerly at 10-15 knots by late morning. Haze and suspended dust reduced visibilities over central Iraq to 7-9 km. Smoke, haze, and suspended dust reduced visibilities in northern Kuwait to 5-7 km and to 1,600 meters in southern Kuwait.

High temperatures were 7-15 degrees Celsius; lows, 0-6 degrees Celsius.

Visible Smoke Plumes

NOAA visual imagery in Gulf War Weather shows visible smoke plumes extending in varying directions from the northeast to the south. Imagery captioned: "Smoke from Kuwait is being blown southward into northeast Saudi Arabia.112

8 February 1991

The low pressure system was now located over southeastern Saudi Arabia. The subtropical jet stream brought middle and high clouds across eastern Saudi Arabia. Weak high pressure was centered over Iraq.

Although skies were generally clear, broken middle clouds at 10,000 to 12,000 feet were observed over east-southeastern Saudi Arabia during early morning. Skies were broken to overcast at 4,000-5,000 feet between 0500 and 1300Z over northwestern and north-central Saudi Arabia. Scattered middle clouds were observed over western Iraq in the morning and afternoon, becoming broken at 10,000-12,000 feet during the evening. Blowing sand and dust lowered visibilities to 5-7 km in east-central Saudi Arabia.

Skies were generally clear, but scattered middle clouds were observed over southeastern Iraq during early morning. By mid-afternoon, there were scattered middle clouds over central Iraq. By late night, these became scattered to broken at 10,000-12,000 feet.

Winds were light and variable in the morning, becoming northwesterly to northerly at 10-15 knots. Visibilities in smoke over southern Kuwait and southeast Iraq was less than 1,600 meters. High temperatures were 7-15 degrees Celsius; lows, 0-6 degrees Celsius.

Visible Smoke Plumes

NOAA visual imagery in Gulf War Weather shows visible smoke plumes over southeast Iraq and southern Kuwait, extending to the south and southeast.

9 February 1991

High pressure dominated the region -- skies were generally clear.

Skies were clear except for scattered low clouds over northwestern Saudi Arabia and western Iraq. Winds increased to 15 knots with gusts of 25 knots across northern Saudi Arabia, where afternoon visibilities decreased to 4,800 meters in blowing sand and dust.

Early morning skies over central Iraq were broken at 10,000-12,000 feet. The clouds slowly moved into southeastern Iraq and dissipated during the day.

Winds were westerly to northwesterly at 10-20. Smoke and haze lowered visibilities in Kuwait to 5-7 km. High temperatures were 12-20 degrees Celdius; lows, 2-8 degrees Celsius.

10 February 1991

High pressure continued to dominate. Skies over Saudi Arabia and Iraq were clear during the day, but scattered to broken mid-level clouds with bases at 10,000-12,000 feet moved into western Iraq by late evening.

Skies were clear during the day, but by late evening, scattered to broken mid-level clouds with bases at 10,000-12,000 feet moved into central Iraq.

Winds were northwesterly at 5-10 knots. Thick smoke over east and southeast Iraq began to show in satellite photos by 0600Z and lasted until early evening. Smoke from southern Kuwait was also still visible; visibilities in the smoke were 800-1,600 meters. High temperatures were 10-15 degrees Celsius; lows, 0-5 degrees Celsius.

Visible Smoke Plumes

Imagery in Gulf War Weather shows smoke plumes visible over western, eastern, and southeastern Iraq. Direction: SSE; Smoke plumes are also visible over southern Kuwait. Direction: South.

11 February 1991

High pressure was centered over southeastern Saudi Arabia, but low pressure formed over western Saudi Arabia. The subtropical jet stream brought increased moisture in the mid and upper-levels to Iraq and nothern Saudi Arabia. A mid-level disturbance moving over Iraq and northern Saudi Arabia caused isolated thunderstorms and rainshowers.

Scattered high clouds over western Iraq became broken with bases at 20,000 feet from mid-morning through afternoon. There were scattered low clouds over northwestern and east-central Saudi Arabia during the day.

Scattered to broken upper clouds with bases at 22,000-25,000 feet were present during the morning and mid-afternoon over central Iraq. Morning skies were clear over Kuwait and southeastern Iraq, but smoke plumes were visible. Cloudiness decreased in central Iraq during the day, but increased in southeastern Iraq and Kuwait. Skies became scattered to broken, occasionally overcast, at 4,000-6,000 feet. By late afternoon, thunderstorms (tops 35,000 feet) and rainshowers had formed over Kuwait; they moved off to the east and dissipated by late evening.

Winds acompanying the thunderstorms in Kuwait reached 25-35 knots, but over the rest of the area, they were northwesterly at 10-15 knots.

Smoke and haze lowered morning visibilities to 4,800 meters in Kuwait and southeastern Iraq. Rain and rainshowers reduced evening visibilities to 1,600-3,200 meters. High temperatures were 10-15 degrees Celsius; lows were 0-5 degrees Celsius.

Visible Smoke Plumes

Imagery in Gulf War Weather shows smoke plumes clearly visible over Kuwait. Direction: South; Smoke plumes are also visible over southeastern Iraq. Direction: SSE.

12 February 1991

High pressure dominated, but a low-pressure system moved into the eastern Mediterranean by the end of the day, increasing cloudiness over western Iraq.

Broken middle clouds at 8,000-10,000 feet were present over northeast, east and central Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf during the morning. By late evening, there were scattered to broken high clouds at 20,000-25,000 feet over western Iraq.

Broken middle clouds at 8,000-10,000 feet remained over Kuwait until mid-morning. Scattered upper clouds moved into central Iraq by late evening.

Winds were northwesterly to northerly at 10-15 knots. High temperatures were 10-15 degrees Celsius; lows, 0-5 degrees Celsius. Visibilities in Kuwait were 5-7 km due to smoke and haze.

Visible Smoke Plumes

Imagery in Gulf War Weather shows smoke plumes clearly visible over eastern Iraq and Kuwait. direction: S-SSE.

13 February 1991

High pressure dominated the Saudi Arabian peninsula, but low pressure centered over the eastern Mediterranean sent moisture into Iraq and northern Saudi Arabia. The low moved to the northeast as high pressure intensified behind it.

Scattered skies became broken to overcast over western and northern Iraq. The 25,000 foot ceilings prevailing in the morning became 8,000-10,000 feet during the day. By the end of the day, skies were scattered again. Over northern Saudi Arabia, skies were scattered, but occasionally broken, at 20,000-25,000 feet.

Scattered skies became gradually broken over central, east-central, and southeast Iraq and Kuwait. Smoke plumes were visible over southern Kuwait and the northern Saudi Arabian Gulf Coast. (see below)

Winds were northwesterly at 10-15 knots. Visibilities in southeastern Iraq and Kuwait were 5-7 kilometers in smoke and haze. High temperatures were 13-16 degrees Celsius; lows, 1-4 degrees Celsius.

Visible Smoke Plumes

Imagery in Gulf War Weather shows smoke plumes clearly visible over southern Kuwait. Plume directions appear to be to the S-SSE.

14 February 1991

High pressure over Iran and Syria resulted in fair weather across most of the region.

Morning skies over northern Iraq were overcast with middle and high clouds; ceilings were as low as 10,000 feet. The clouds moved eastward and were over Iran by 1200Z. Broken low and middle clouds over central and southern Saudi Arabia produced 5,000 foot ceilings with scattered light rainshowers and 9 km visibilities. The clouds moved southeastward and became scattered after 1200Z. Visibilities in western and southern Iraq were as low as 6 km where 20 knot winds resulted in localized suspended and blowing dust.

Cloud cover consisted only of thin scattered high clouds over eastern Iraq and Kuwait: bases were 20,000 feet; tops 25,000 feet. The high clouds moved east into Iran by 1200Z. Winds were light and variable in the early morning, becoming northerly to easterly at 5-15 knots during the day.

Morning visibilities along the Persian Gulf coast near Kuwait were 8 km in fog. Widespread haze over northern Saudi Arabia produced visibilities of 8 km. High temperatures were 16-18 degrees Celsius; lows were 2-5 degrees Celsius.

Visible Smoke Plumes

Imagery in Gulf War Weather shows smoke plumes clearly visible over southern Iraq. Plume directions appear to be to the SE.

15 February 1991

High pressure over Iran and Turkey extended southward across most of the region. Broken high clouds passed through western Iraq to the east during the afternoon, followed in the evening by a large shield of high cloud entering from the west. Scattered to broken high clouds over parts of central and southern Saudi Arabia--with bases between 9,000 and 12,000 feet--dissipated partially during the day. Blowing dust in northern and western Saudi Arabia reduced visibilities to as low as 5 km.

Broken high clouds passed through the area between 1300Z and 2100Z with bases at 24,000 feet and tops to 32,000 feet. There were followed by scattered high clouds that moved into central Iraq from the west by the end of the day. Scattered bases were at 24,000 feet with tops to 32,000 feet.

Winds were northerly at 5-10 knots through the morning, gradually shifting to easterly at 5-15 knots in the afternoon and evening. Smoke that is clearly visible restricted visibility up to 14,000 feet. Evening ground fog developed along the Kuwait coast, dropping visibility to 8 km. High temperatures were near 20 degrees Celsius; lows varied from 2 degrees Celsius in the north to 8 degrees Celsius in the southeast.

Visible Smoke Plumes

DMSP visual imagery in Gulf War Weather shows smoke plumes visible over Kuwait extending to the south over Saudi Arabia.

16 February 1991

High pressure over Iran weakened as a strong frontal system approached from the west. The polar jet stream dipped southward into the eastern Mediterranean as the subtropical jet stream crossed Egypt and brought in upper level moisture. A new low pressure center formed on the front over Syria by 1500Z and moved southeast. The low and its accompanying cold front reached western Iraq by 1800Z.

Multiple cloud layers covered the region southward to 25 degrees North with scattered to broken low clouds and broken to overcast middle and high clouds. Light rain and rainshowers lowered ceilings to 1,000 feet and visibilities to 1,100 meters. The blowing dust already present in northwestern Saudi Arabia at 0000Z spread to include much of northern Saudi Arabia, especially south of the rain. Winds up to 30 knots produced duststorms with visibilities as low as 200 meters in northern Saudi Arabia, Syria, and western Iraq.

Cloud cover increased and ceilings lowered during the day. Skies were initially scattered with high clouds from 27,000 to 30,000 feet, but became broken to overcast by morning, with multiple layers between 25,000 and 35,000 feet. Bases lowered to 20,000 feet by 0700Z. Broken middle clouds reached central Iraq at about 1100Z with 12,000 foot bases and 18,000 foot tops. Scattered low clouds moved in by early evening with 2,000 foot bases and 6,000 foot tops; middle-cloud ceilings were down to 8,000 feet by then. Low clouds increased in the evening. Light rain and rainshowers lowered ceilings to 1,000 feet.

Winds varied from easterly to southerly with the approaching frontal system. Initial 5 to 10 knot speeds increased during the day. The highest reported sustained speed was 30 knots.

Visibilities worsened throughout the day. Dense black smoke over the southern half of Kuwait reduced visibilities to 6 km--some pilots reported certain areas as "unworkable." Duststorms developed as wind speeds reached 20 knots around 0900Z; speeds to 30 knots dropped visibilities to as low as 200 meters later in the day. Local evening visibilities were as low as 1,100 meters. High temperatures increased to 20-25 degrees Celsius as the front brought warm air into the region; lows were 6-8 degrees Celsius.

17 February 1991

A low pressure area moved northeast from central Iraq across Iran as its cold front moved through most of Iraq. A weak secondary low formed along the front in south-central Iraq near the Saudi Arabian border. The cold front continued southward into central Saudi Arabia and weakened. High pressure intensified behind the front.

Rain fell along the front in northern Saudi Arabia early in the day, but moved into central Saudi Arabia by evening. Visibilities were 8 km, but dropped to 4,700 meters in a 1500Z thunderstorm in west-central Saudi Arabia. Blowing dust ahead of the front reduced visibilities to as low as 1,700 meters. Duststorms behind the front dropped visibility as low as 900 meters in western Iraq. Skies over central Saudi Arabia were scattered at 4,000 feet, and broken to overcast at 10,000 feet.

Cloud cover from 0000Z to 1100Z was broken to overcast with layered low and middle clouds; ceilings were 3,000 feet, tops to 15,000 feet. Skies over southern Iraq and Kuwait were overcast at between 20,000 and 35,000 feet. Skies in Iraq began to clear by 1100Z, leaving scattered low clouds from 3,000 to 6,000 feet that continued moving east and south; all of Iraq, except for its extreme northern border, was clear after 1600Z.

Rain and rainshowers fell over northeastern Saudi Arabia, southeastern Iraq, and Kuwait. The bases of late morning thunderstorms near the Saudi Arabia border were 3,000 feet, with tops to 35,000 feet. The rain moved eastward by evening.

Winds were southerly to southeasterly at 5-15 knots ahead of the low and cold front, and northerly to northwesterly at 5-20 knots behind it. Speeds diminished to 5-10 knots in the evening.

Visibility in rain was 4,700 meters. Blowing dust in some areas of northeastern Saudi Arabia that had remained dry lowered visibilities to 6 km. Evening fog formed locally where rain had fallen, lowering visibilities to 6 km.

Daytime temperatures were highest (20 degrees Celsius) in the west where skies cleared first, but highs in the east were as low as 14 degrees Celsius. Daily lows were in the evening after the cold front had passed. Low ranged from 6 degrees Celsius in the north to 12 degrees Celsius in the south.

18 February 1991

A high pressure cell moved over Iraq and dominated much of the region's weather. Morning fog developed over north-central and northwestern Saudi Arabia but dissipated by early afternoon. Clouds associated with yesterday's cold front were over central Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf, where they produced scattered light rain through the morning until moving into the Arabian Sea in the afternoon. Skies were scattered from 3,000 to 6,000 feet, broken from 10,000 to 18.000 feet, and broken from 28,000 to 33,000 feet.

Thick morning ground fog lifted to form 1,000 foot ceilings that dissipated by about 1000Z. Broken middle clouds over southern Kuwait and northeastern Saudi Arabia moved off to the southeast during the first 6 hours of the day; ceilings were 7,000 feet with tops to 12,000 feet. Middle and high clouds moved into the region from the northwest during the second half of the day; scattered to broken middle clouds were from 8,000 to 18,000 feet, and thin broken high clouds were from 29,000 to 35,000 feet.

Winds were generally light and variable in the north, but northerly to northeasterly at 5-10 knots in the south. Visibilities ranged from near zero to 2,000 meters in thick and extensive morning fog across portions of Iraq and Saudi Arabia. The fog, which was concentrated over (and to the west of) the Tigris-Euphrates river valley in Iraq, didn't burn off until about 1000Z. Fog formed again in the evening over northern Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, dropping visibilities to 4,800 meters. High temperatures were 17-20 degrees Celsius; lows ranged from 5 degrees Celsius in clear areas to 11 dcgrees Celsius under the fog.

19 February 1991

A low pressure area developed over Syria and moved eastward into northwestern Iraq. A secondary low developed in northwestern Saudi Arabia and moved eastward into northern Saudi Arabia. Two lines of strong thunderstorms--one over northern Saudi Arabia, one over Iraq--developed between 1500 and 1800Z and continued well into the next day.

Scattered low clouds over western Iraq and northern Saudi Arabia early in the day were from 3,000 to 5,000 feet. Thin high clouds moved in that afternoon. Thunderstorm bases were at 3,000 feet, tops to 35,000 feet. Rain and rainshowers began after 1500Z. In central Saudi Arabia, scattered to broken low and middle clouds, with bases at 4,000 and 10,000 feet, produced scattered evening rainshowers.

Cloud cover in the first 6 hours was limited to southeastern Iraq and Kuwait, where skies were scattered at 3,000 and 5,000 feet and then broken from 20,000 to 25,000 feet. After these had cleared out in the afternoon, a new high thin broken layer at 22,000 to 25,000 feet moved in. Convective activity from the west entered the area at about 1800Z, producing bases that were generally 3,000 feet, but as low as 1,000 feet in thunderstorms; tops were to 35,000 feet. Convective cells consolidated to form a nearly solid, north-south line in central Iraq as another, similar line formed in northern Saudi Arabia. Middle-cloud ceilings outside showers were at 10,000 feet.

Thunderstorms produced localized moderate to heavy rain after 1800Z. Light rain and rainshowers fell outside the areas of strong convection.

Winds were east-southeasterly at 5-10 knots during the first half of the day, increasing to 15-20 knots by afternoon. Isolated gusts to 30 knots occurred with thunderstorms. Visibilities were less than 1,000 meters in rain associated with thunderstorms, but 7 and 9 km elsewhere in rainshowers, black smoke from Kuwait, fog, and/or blowing dust. High temperatures were 19-21 Celsius; lows, 7-11 degrees Celsius.

Visible Smoke Plumes

DMSP visual imagery in Gulf War Weather shows smoke plumes visible over Kuwait and extreme northeastern Saudi Arabia.

20 February 1991

The low over Iraq moved eastward into Iran as the secondary low over northern Saudi Arabia moved southeast along the Persian Gulf coast. Thunderstorm activity that started the day before continued across eastern Iraq, Kuwait, and northeastern Saudi Arabia. Lines of thunderstorms moved graduallay eastward as new cells developed on their southwestern ends.

A cold front moved southeast across central and eastern Saudi Arabia, producing scattered rain showers and visibilities as low as 800 meters in blowing dust. Skies were scattered from 4,000 to 6,000 feet and broken from 10,000 to 15,000 feet. Thunderstorms that had been in northern Iraq earlier in the day moved into Iran, followed by broken to overcast low and middle clouds with ceilings at 3,500 feet.

Thunderstorms moved across the area from west to east. Bases were at 1,000 feet and tops reached 40,000 feet. Cloud cover outside thunderstorms was broken to overcast, and multilayered from 3,000 to 35,000 feet. Surface moisture helped produce low broken clouds west of the front in central Iraq; ceilings were 3,500 feet, with tops to 6,000 feet. There were also broken middle clouds from 10,000 to 15,000 feet. Parts of south-central Iraq and north-central Saudi Arabia cleared as thunderstorms moved east.

Precipitation was moderate to heavy in thunderstorms, but light away from the strong cells.

Winds were east-southeasterly at 10-20 knots, becoming west-northwesterly at 10-25 knots as the storm moved through. Isolated thunderstorms were above 30 knots.

Visibilities were 9 km outside thunderstorms, but less than 1,000 meters in heavy thundershowers. Blowing dust in areas along the front that had not received much rain lowered visibilities to 7 km. Evening fog formed along the Persian Gulf coast, lowering visibilities to 1,500 meters by 2300Z.

High temperatures ranged from 24 degrees Celsius in the southeast ahead of the cold front to as low as 15 degrees Celsius in the northwest behind it. Lows were 9 degrees Celsius in the north and 14 degrees Celsius in the southeast.

21 February 1991

A low pressure system moving south along the Persian Gulf neared Dhahran by 0300Z; by 1500Z, it was on the United Arab Emirates coast near 53 degrees East. Its cloudless cold front extended southwest across the Arabian Peninsula. By 0900Z, an area of high pressure had formed in northwestern Saudi Arabia near the Iraqi border.

The low pressure system spread a wide area of clouds, rain, and isolated thunderstorms over the Persian Gulf and along the coast as it passed. Ceilings were generally 10,000 feet in rainshowers, but ceilings in thunderstorms were reported at 3,000 feet. Inland, the front caused duststorms as it passed, reducing visibilities in some places to 800 meters. Fog blanketed northern Saudi Arabia in the wake of the low pressure system, but dissipated by 0800Z at most locations; visibilities were as low as 2,800 meters along the coast, but much lower in protected wadis. Along the eastern Saudi Arabian coast, visibilities were 4,800 meters in dense haze. Between 0500 and 1300Z, sporadic duststorms reduced visibilities to 6 km in the Syrian Desert.

An overcast layer of low clouds resulted in 500 foot ceilings over Kuwait and Iraq south of Baghdad. Clouds tops were about 1,200 feet. The clouds lifted to 1,000-3,000 feet by 0500Z and dissipated by 0700Z. South of 29 degrees North, broken middle clouds with 10,000 foot bases persisted until about 0700Z. Skies were clear after 0900Z.

Winds were northeasterly or northerly at 10 knots in the south, easterly at 10-15 knots in the north. Central Iraq's winds were light and variable. Highest speeds--20 knots along the northeastern Saudi Arabian border--were reported at 1500Z.

Fog and visibilities of 500 meters were common. The fog dissipated in the northwest first, but lingered until 0800Z in Kuwait and Iraq south of 32 degrees North. Dense smoke reduced visibilities in southern Kuwait and northern Saudi Arabia. The afternoon high temperature was 15 degrees Celsius. Morning lows were 6-11 degrees Celsius, but by evening, temperatures in the north had fallen to about 3 degrees Celsius.

Visible Smoke Plumes

DMSP visual imagery in Gulf War Weather shows smoke plumes in southern Kuwait extending southward in Saudi Arabia.

22 February 1991

High pressure was centered over east-central Saudi Arabia. A cold front extending from a low in the eastern Mediterranean spread scattered to broken high clouds across Syria and northwestern Iraq. The system had moved into eastern Syria by 1600Z. A low pressure system near the Strait of Hormuz brough low cloudiness and rain to the southeastern Arabian Peninsula.

A dense band of smoke aloft extended from the northern Persian Gulf along the Saudi Arabian coast into the Rub al Khali. Bases were about 10,000 feet, tops to 18,000 feet. Skies were clear to scattered, but scattered to broken middle and high clouds moved over the extreme northeast by 1800Z. Ceilings, where present, were 10,000 feet with tops to 15,000 feet. The middle and high clouds were nearing Baghdad by 2300Z.

Visibilities were unrestricted except for areas affected by smoke, where they were generally about 6 km. Pilots reported smoke tops to about 15,000 feet and inflight visibilities as low as 1,000 feet. Dense smoke over and south of Kuwait.

Winds were light and variable before 1500Z, becoming southeasterly to easterly at 5-10 knots to the east of the front after 1500Z. Elsewhere, winds remained light. After sunset, winds were nearly calm. High temperatures were 13-18 degrees Celsius; lows, 1-8 degrees Celsius. The lowest temperatures were in the eastern Nafud Desert.

Visible Smoke Plumes

NOAA visual imagery in Gulf War Weather shows smoke plumes visible over Kuwait moving southward over coastal Saudi Arabia.

23 February 1991

High pressure centered over the eastern Arabian peninsula moved southeastward into the Rub al Khali by 2000Z. Even though the frontal system dissipated as it moved across northwest Saudi Arabia, it still caused isolated light showers and duststorms. The subtropical jet stream brought middle and high clouds eastward over the area after 0900Z. Low pressure formed over the Red Sea.

Fog reduced visibilities along the central Persian Gulf to about 1,000 meters between 0100 and 0400Z and reformed after 2000Z. Scattered to broken low and middle clouds with light isolated rainshowers reduced visibilities to 10km along the weak low pressure system in the west. Duststorms caused 4,000 meter visibilities in the Syrian and Nafud Deserts between 0900 and 1700Z. Middle and high clouds produced 10,000 foot ceilings over northwestern Saudi Arabia after 0900Z. Smoke from the Kuwaiti oilfields had reached Qatar; although concentrated at 10,000-12,000 feet, the smoke mixed with haze at lower levels to produce 6 km visibilities.

In the west, the low pressure system caused scattered to broken clouds at 10,000 feet until about 0600Z, when they became scattered. By 1200Z, middle and high clouds began to move into the area south of 31 degrees North, causing broken to overcast ceilings at 10,000 to 12,000 feet. These clouds were east of 45 degrees East by 1900Z. Between 0400 and 1600Z, another band of middle and high clouds formed along the Iran-Iraq border north of 32 degrees North. Ceilings were about 8,000 feet, with tops to 32,000 feet. Isolated thunderstorms formed over Kuwait by 2000Z, with 2,500 foot bases and tops to 35,000 feet.

Winds were northerly to northwesterly at 10-15 knots east of 45 degrees East. Elsewhere, winds were easterly at 5-10 knots. Duststorms reduced visibilities to 8 km along the Iraq-Saudi Arabia border between 0800 and 1500Z. Dense smoke covered Eastern Kuwait and reduced visibilities generally to less than 8 km, with isolated cases as low as 1,000 meters. High temperatures were 13-16 degrees Celsius; lows, 7-13 degrees Celsius.


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