Riyadh, date unknown.
Mr. Michael Kingsbury was a driver/mechanic with the 601st Transportation Company during the Gulf War. He was interviewed by Committee staff for this report. Mr. Kingsbury was in Riyadh for six hours rest and relaxation when the first SCUD missile attack took place. Although he does not remember the date of the attack, he was certain that it was the first SCUD attack on Riyadh. Mr. Kingbury reported that three SCUDs came in, the alarms went off, and they went to MOPP level 4. He immediately began to experience nausea and a sore throat. His nose began to run and his eyes burned a little. He reported seeing a rainbow in the sky after the attack.
The symptoms that began with the attack never went away. In addition, he began to suffer skin irritation after the attack. He began having stomach problems when he returned from the Gulf and currently suffers from memory loss, rashes, aching joints, headaches, rectal bleeding, nausea, sensitivity to light, abnormal hair loss, high fevers, clammy skin, lumps, bloody oral/nasal mucous, night sweats, sore muscles, and fatigue.
January 18, 1991, around midnight (poss. very early on January 19) Log Base Alpha
Mr. William Brady was the Battalion Logistics NCO with the 217th Maintenance Battalion. Around midnight on Janury 18, or possibly very early on the 19th, Mr. Brady was awakened by what he believed to be a SCUD intercepted by a Patriot directly over his unit's position. He said there was a deafening sound, a flash of light, and everything shook. Chemical alarms were going off everywhere, and there was sheer panic. He remembered the chemical litmus paper turning red, and a positive reading from an M- 256 kit. Mr. Brady said that his nose began to run, and he smelled and tasted sulfur. He began coughing up blood a couple of days after the attack, and continued to do so "the whole time we were there after the attack." They remained at MOPP level 4 for five or six hours. They radioed the 16th Support Group, but did not get a response for a couple of hours. Eventually they were told to come to Group Headquartrers (Hq.) for a message that Hq. didn't want to radio over. The message said that what they heard was a sonic boom, and instructed them to perform another test. The second test, performed several hours after the initial test, was negative. Members of the unit were told that the M9 paper had turned red as a result of exposure to diesel fumes. The message also gave the "all clear" for people to come out of MOPP level 4, but, Mr. Brady recalled, everyone was afraid to unmask.
After they got out of MOPP level 4, Mr. Brady went with Lt. Bryant to deliver gas masks and nerve agent pre-treatment pills to the 344th Maintenance Company. When they arrived back at their unit, everyone was dressed in their full chemical suits at MOPP level 4. They were told that while they were out riding around (without a radio), there had been another attack.
Beginning on January 22, Mr. Brady began getting too sick to work. He had been taking the nerve agent pre-treatment pills since about January 17, and had been getting severe headaches from them. Approximately three days after the attack, his eyes began to burn, he developed a high fever, and "taking a breath of air made his lungs feel like they were burning up." He also had diarrhea, sores, nausea, and a runny nose. On January 24, he went to the 13th Evacuation Hospital, which had no beds available for him. He described the hospital as completely filled with people that seemed to have the same illness that he had. His January 26 diary entry said: "I'd rather die than feel like this."
Mr. Brady stated during the interview that he "is convinced that there was a chemical attack." He reported that "everyone started getting pneumonia or flu-like symptoms after the attack", ... that the nerve agent pre-treatment pills "were useless," ... and that he is convinced that the PB tabs gave people headaches, but that they also "got hit with a nerve agent."
Mr. Brady currently suffers from severe recurring headaches, chronic fatigue, joint and muscle pain, rashes, depression, night sweats, insomnia, urinary urgency, diarrhea, gastrointestinal problems, lightheadedness, photosensitivity, shortness of breath, coughing, abnormal hair loss, sensitivity in his teeth, burning and itching everywhere, arthritis, worsening leg cramps, "flu symptoms all of the time," a tingling in his arms, and a "bulging disc" in his neck. He had a heart attack in May 1993. His wife is suffering from fatigue, yeast infections, a rash, sinus headaches, aching in her right arm and a loss of feeling in her thumb, and two ruptured discs in her neck. Mr. Brady is forty-seven years old, his wife is thirty-seven years old.
January 1991 (4-5 Days into the Air War) Near Ras Al Khafji
Mr. Norman Camp is a Staff Sergeant with the U.S. Marine Corps. He told Senate staff during an interview that he was near Ras Al Khafji several days into the air war when the chemical alarms went off, not only at their position, but also at their Division Supply Area, which was about 20 miles to their east. They went on 100% alert, but word was passed down from division not to go to MOPP. Sergeant Camp recalled that his whole platoon began falling ill the following night. He got headaches, nausea, and diarrhea for a day. Most others were sick for about a day and a half.
Sergeant Camp currently suffers from headaches, joint pain in knees and elbows, memory loss, night sweats, occasional insomnia, urinary urgency, dizziness, photosensivity, shortness of breath, coughing and heart problems. His wife suffers from fatigue, yeast infections, menstrual irregularities, joint and muscle pain, and chest pain. Sergeant Camp is thirty-six years old, his wife is thirty-two years old.
January 19 or 20, 1991, 3:30 a.m. 3-4 Kilometers West of Log Base Echo
Mr. Dale Glover was a Staff Sergeant with the 1165th Miliary Police Company. He recalled being awakened at 3:30 a.m. The Battalion NBC NCO was announcing that they were under chemical attack. An M-256 kit registered a positive reading for a chemical agent. They went to MOPP level 4 for four hours. Afterward, all of them had runny noses.
When asked if people were made sick from the attack, Mr. Glover responded that most people were already sick from the pyridostigmide bromide pills. He said that they had been taking them for two or three days before the attack and that "a lot of people got sick and three or four had to be medevaced out."
Mr. Glover currently suffers from headaches, fatigue, joint and muscle pain, an inability to concentrate, recurring rashes, irritability, night sweats, insomnia, diarrhea, gastrointestinal problems, dizziness, blackouts, excessive photosensitivity, sore gums, swollen lymph nodes, and a spot on his brain. His wife is suffering from fatigue, menstrual irregularities, yeast infections, joint pain, some memory loss, and hair loss. Mr. Glover is thirty years old, his wife is 28 years old.
February 25, 1991 In Iraq, near the Kuwait Border
Mr. John Jacob, a mechanic with the 1st Infantry Division, was on a road march with Task Force 216. He was sitting in the driver's seat in his humvee when he detected what he believed to be gas. He recalled "getting a whiff of" a sweet, almond-like taste and smell, accompanied by a sudden burning in his throat and lungs, watering eyes, blurry vision and photosensitivity, nausea, dizziness and diarrhea. He donned his mask and gloves, and sounded an alarm. He recalled that whatever it was seemed to come through the driver's side window, as though something was caught in the wind and just drifted into his face. Although no one else seemed to be affected - Mr. Jacob said the others looked at him as thought he were crazy - his symptoms never went away. Afterward, he began to get headaches as well. His coordination was "messed up" for a couple of days after this incident. Mr. Jacob said that he later heard that a couple of people in his convoy detected something, but does not have any additional information. He says his M9 did not register anything.
Mr. Jacob says that he has been sick ever since that incident, and in addition to those symptoms already described, currently suffers from fatigue, joint and muscle pain, memory loss, recurring rashes, lumps at joint areas, night sweats, depression and irritability, insomnia, urinary urgency, gastrointestinal problems, shortness of breath, coughing, abnormal hair loss, dental problems, swollen lymph nodes, and a foot fungus that will not go away. Mr. Jacob is thirty-two years old.
How these events occurred is a matter for legitimate debate. But given the absence of a credible explanation -- one which explains what occurred during these events, methodical and detailed testing and analysis of the causes of the symptoms these individuals are experiencing and how these symptoms are transmitted must be undertaken. This is not only a matter of providing medical care to veterans and their families, but also a matter of national security. Many of the servicemen and women interviewed believe the foregoing events occurred as a result of SCUD or FROG missile attacks. Since the first staff report was issued last September, however, it has been learned that there are other methods by which Iraqi chemical and biological materials might have been dispersed.
A number of troops who were assigned to perimeter security posts have described to Committee staff individuals, persons who appeared to be Bedouins, who would leave canisters of what they believed to be chemicals outside perimeter fences and would then speed off in their four wheel drive vehicles. In these cases unit NBC NCOs would be assigned to check the canisters. Others talk about indigenous peoples leaving dead animals laying on airstrips used by U.S. personnel or about their tossing dead animals over perimeter walls in protest of the U.S. presence in Saudi Arabia. Still others have told of snipers and other Iraqi special operations missions that occurred as far south as Dhahran during the war.
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