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Material Safety Data Sheet -- Lethal Nerve Agents Somain (GD and Thickened GD)

Section I: General Information
Section II: Hazardous Ingredients
Section III: Physical Data
Section IV: Fire and Explosion Data
Section V: Health Hazard Data
Section VI: Reactivity Data
Section VII: Spill, Leak and Disposal Procedures
Section VIII: Special Protection Information
Section IX: Special Precautions
Section X: Transportation Data
Addendum A: Physiological Effects
Addendum B: First Aid Procedures
Addendum C: Additional Information for Thickened GD


Section I: General Information

MANUFACTURER'S NAME: Department of the Army

MANUFACTURER'S ADDRESS:

U.S. Army Armament, Munitions and Chemical Command
Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center
ATTN: SMCCR-CMS-E
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5423

CAS REGISTRY NUMBER: 96-64-0 or 50642-24-5

CHEMICAL NAME: Phosphonofluoridic acid, methyl-, 1, 2, 2-trimethylpropyl ester

ALTERNATE CHEMICAL NAMES:

TRADE NAME AND SYNONYMS:

CHEMICAL FAMILY: Fluorinated organophosphorus compound

FORMULA: C7 H16 F02 P

NFPA 704 SIGNAL:

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Section II: Hazardous Ingredients

INGREDIENTS     FORMULA       PERCENTAGE     AIRBORNE
                              BY WEIGHT      EXPOSURE LIMIT 

 GD             C7 H16 FOP          100      0.00003 mg/m3

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Section III: Physical Data

BOILING POINT DEG F (DEG C): (198 DEC C) 388 DEG F

VAPOR PRESSURE: 0.40 mm Hg @ 25 DEG C

VAPOR DENSITY (AIR=1): 6.3

SOLUBILITY IN WATER: Moderate

SPECIFIC GRAVITY (H20=1): 1.022 @ 25 DEG C

VOLATILITY: 3900 mg/m3 @ 25 DEC C

MELTING POINT: -42 DEG C

APPEARANCE AND ODOR: When pure, colorless liquid with fruity odor. With impurities, amber or dark brown, with oil of camphor odor

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Section IV: Fire and Explosion Data

FLASHPOINT: 121 DEG C (Open Cup)

FLAMMABILITY LIMITS: Unknown

LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT: Not applicable

UPPER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT: Not applicable

EXTINGUISING MEDIA: Water, fog, foam, CO2 - Avoid using extinguishing methods that will cause splashing or spreading of the GD.

SPECIAL FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURES:

Fires involving GD should be contained to prevent contamination of uncontrolled areas. All persons not engaged in extinguishing the fire should be evacuated immediately. Contact with GD or its vapors can be fatal. When responding to a fire alarm in buildings or areas containing agents, firefighting personnel should wear full firefighter protective clothing (without TAP clothing) during chemical agent firefighting and fire rescue operations.

Respiratory protection is required. Positive pressure, full facepiece, NIOSH approved self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) will be worn where there is danger of oxygen deficiency and when directed by the fire chief or chemical accident/incident (CAI) operations officer. The M9 or M17 series mask may be worn in lieu of SCBA when there is no danger of oxygen deficiency. In cases where firefighter are responding to a chemical accident/incident for rescue/reconnaissance purposes vice firefighting, they will wear appropriate levels of protective clothing (see Section 8).

UNUSUAL FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS: Hydrogen produced by the corrosive vapors reacting with metals, concrete, etc., may be present.

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Section V: Health Hazard Data

AIRBORNE EXPOSURE LIMIT (AEL): The suggested permissible airborne exposure concentration of GD for an 8 hour workday or a 40 hour work week is an 8 hour time weighted average (TWA) of 0.00003 mg/m3 (2 x 10-5 ppm). This value is based on the TWA of GB as proposed in the USaEHA Technical Guide No. 169, "Occupational Health Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Occupational Exposure to Nerve Agents GA, GB, GD, and VX." To date, however, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has not promulgated permissible exposure concentration for GD.

EFFECTS OF OVEREXPOSURE: GD is a lethal anticholinesterase agent with the median lethal dose in man being: LCt50 (inhalation) = 70 mg min/m3 (t = 10 min); LD50 (PC, bare skin) = 0.35 g/man (70 kg).

  1. One to several minutes after overexposure to airborne GD the following acute symptoms appear:

    1. . LOCAL EFFECTS (lasting 1-15 days, increase with dose)

      1. On eyes: Miosis (constriction of pupils); redness, pressure sensation on eyes.
      2. By inhalation: Rhinorrhea (runny nose), nasal congestion, tightness in chest, wheezing, salivation, nausea, vomiting

    2. SYSTEMIC EFFECTS (increases with dose): When inhaled GD will cause excessive secretion causing coughing/breathing difficulty: salivation and sweating: vomiting, diarrhea; stomach cramps; involuntary urination/defecation; generalized muscle twitching/muscle cramps; CNS depression including anxiety, restlessness, giddiness, insomnia, excessive dreaming and nightmares. With more severe exposure, also headache, tremor, drowsiness, concentration difficulty, memory impairment, confusion, unsteadiness on standing or walking, and progressing to death.

  2. After exposure to liquid GD, the following acute symptoms appear:

    1. LOCAL EFFECTS:

      1. On eyes: Miosis (constriction of pupils); redness, pressure sensation on eyes.
      2. By ingestion: salivation, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, involuntary defecation, heartburn.
      3. On skin: Sweating, muscle twitching

    2. Chronic exposure to GD causes forgetfulness, thinking difficulty, vision disturbances, muscular aches/pains. Although certain organophosphate pesticides have been shown to be teratogenic in animals, these effects have not been documented in carefully controlled toxicological evaluations for GD.

GD presently is not listed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), National Toxicology Program (NTP), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), or American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) as a carcinogen.

EMERGENCY AND FIRST AID PROCEDURES:

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Section VI: Reactivity Data

STABILITY: Stable after storage in steel for 3 months at 65 Deg. C. GD corrodes steel at the rate of 1 x 10-5 inch/month.

GD will hydrolyze to form HF--H-H-O-CH3 and (CH3) 3-C-C-O-P-OH

HAZARDOUS POLYMERIZATION: Will not occur.

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Section VII: Spill, Leak and Disposal Procedures

STEPS TO BE TAKEN IN CASE MATERIAL IS RELEASED OR SPILLED: If leak or spills occur, only personnel in full protective clothing (see Section 8) will remain in area. In case of personnel contamination, see Section V "Emergency and First Aid Procedures."

RECOMMENDED FIELD PROCEDURES:

Spills must be contained by covering with vermiculite, diatomaceous earth, clay, fine sand, sponges and paper or cloth towels. This containment is followed by treatment with copious amounts of aqueous Sodium Hydroxide solution (a minimum of 10 percent). Scoop up all material and place in a fully removable head drum with a high density polyethylene liner. Cover the contents of the drum with decontaminating solution as above before affixing the drum head. After sealing the head, the exterior of the drum shall be decontaminated and then labeled IAW EPA and DOT regulations.

All leaking containers shall be overpacked with vermiculite placed between the interior and exterior containers. Decontaminate and label IAW EPA and DOT regulations. Dispose of the material IAW waste disposal methods provided below. Dispose of material used to decontaminate exterior of drum IAW Federal, state and local regulations. Contaminated clothing will be placed in a fully removable head drum with a high density polyethylene liner and the contents shall be covered with decontaminating solution as above before affixing the drum head. Conduct general area monitoring to confirm that the atmospheric concentrations do not exceed the exposure limits (see Section 8).

If 10 wt percent aqueous Sodium Hydroxide solution is not available then the following decontaminants may be used instead and are listed in the order of preference: Decontaminating Solution No. 2 (DS2), Sodium Carbonate, and Supertropical Tropical Bleach Slurry (STB).

RECOMMENDED LABORATORY PROCEDURES:

A minimum of 55 grams of decon solution is required per gram of GD. Decontaminant/agent solution is allowed to agitate for a minimum of one hour. Agitation is not necessary following the first hour provided a single phase is obtained. At the end of the first hour the pH should be checked and adjusted up to 11.5 with additional NaOH as required.

An alternate solution for the decontamination of GD is 10 percent Sodium Carbonate in place of the 10 percent Sodium Hydroxide solution above. Continue with 55 grams of decon per gram of GD. Agitate for one hour and allow to react for 3 hours. At the end of the third hour adjust the pH to above 10. It is also permitted to substitute 5.25% Sodium Hypochlorite for the 10% Sodium Hydroxide solution above. Continue with 55 grams of decon per gram of GD. Agitate for one hour and allow to react for 3 hours then adjust the pH to above 10.

Scoop up alll material and place in a fully removable head and a high density polyethylene liner. Cover the contents with additional decontaminating solution before affixing the drum head. After sealing the head, the exterior of the drum shall be decontaminated and then labeled IAW EPA and DOT regulations. All contaminated clothing will be placed in a fully removable head drum with a high density polyethylene liner.

Cover the contents of the drum with decontaminating solution as above before affixing the drum head. After sealing the head, the exterior of the drum shall be decontaminated and then labeled IAW EPA and DOT regulations. All leaking containers shall be overpacked with vermiculite placed between the interior and exterior containers. Decontaminate and label IAW EPA and DOT regulations. Dispose of the material IAW waste disposal methods provided below. Conduct general area monitoring to confirm that the atmospheric concentrations do not exceed the exposure limits (see Section 8).

WASTE DISPOSAL METHOD: Open pit burning or burying of GD or items containing or contaminated with GD in any quantity is prohibited. The detoxified GD (using procedures above) can be thermally destroyed by incineration in an EPA approved incinerator in accordance with appropriate provisions of Federal, state and local RCRA regulations.

NOTE: Some states define decontaminated surety material as a RCRA Hazardous Waste.

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Section VIII: Special Protection Informaton

RESPIRATORY PROTECTION:

GD Concentration         Respiratory Protective Equipment

Less than 0.00003 mg/m3  M9, M17, or M40 series mask shall be available for escape
                         as necessary

0.00003 mg/m3 to 0.06 mg/m3   M9, or M40 series mask with Level A or Level B ensemble
                              (see AMCR 385-131 for determination of appropriate
                              level).

                         Demilitarization Protective Emsemble (DPE), or
                         Toxicological Agent Protective Ensemble Self-Contained
                         (TAPES), used with prior approval from AMC Field Safety
                         Activity.

Greater than 0.06 mg/m3 or    DPE or TAPES used with prior approval from AMC Field 
unknown                  Field Safety Activity

                         NOTE:  When DPE or TAPES is not available the M9 or
                         M40 series mask with Level A protective ensemble can be
                         used.  However, use time shall be restricted to the extent
                         operationally feasible, and may not exceed one hour.

                         As an additional precaution, the cuffs of the sleeves and the
                         legs of the M3 suit shall be taped to the gloves and boots
                         respectively to reduce aspiration.

PROTECTIVE GLOVES: Butyl Glove M3 and M4; Northon, Chemical Protective Glove Set

EYE PROTECTION: Chemical Goggles. For splash hazards use goggles and faceshield.

OTHER PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT: Full protective clothing will consist of M9 mask and hood, butyl rubber suit (M3), M2A1 butyl boots, M3 and M4 gloves, unimpregnated underwear, or demilitarization protective ensemble (DPE). For laboratory operations, wear lab coats and have a protective mask readily available.

MONITORING: Available monitoring equipment for agent GD is the Automatic Chemical Agent Detector Alarm (ACADA), bubblers (GC method), and Chemical Agent Monitor (CAM).

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Section IX: Special Precautions

PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN IN HANDLING AND STORING: In handling GD, the buddy system will be incorporated. No smoking, eating or drinking is permitted in areas containing agent GD. Containers should be periodically inspected for leaks (either visually or by a detector kit) and prior to transferring the containers from storage to work areas. Stringent control over all personnel practices must be exercised. Decontamination equipment shall be conveniently located. Exits must be designed to permit rapid evacuation. Chemical showers, eyewash stations, and personal cleanliness facilities shall be provided. Wash hands before meals and each worker will shower thoroughly with special attention given to hair, face, neck, and hands, using plenty of soap before leaving at the end of the workday.

OTHER PRECAUTIONS: Agent must be double-contained in liquid and vapor-tight containers when in storage or when outside of the ventilation hood.

For additional information, see AMC-R 385-131, "Safety Regulations for Chemical Agents H, HD, GB, and VX" and USaEHA Technical Guide No. 169, "Occupational Health Guidelines for the Evaluation and Control of Occupational Exposure to Nerve Agents GA, GB, GD, and VX."

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Section X: Transportation Data

PROPER SHIPPING NAME: Poisonous liquid, n.o.s.

DOT HAZARD CLASSIFICATION: Poison A

DOT LABEL: Poison gas

DOT MARKING: Poisonous liquid, n.o.s. (Pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate) NA 1955

DOT PLACARD: POISON GA

EMERGENCY ACCIDENT PRECAUTIONS AND PROCEDURES: See Section IV, VII and VIII.

PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN IN TRANSPORTATION:

Motor vehicles will be placarded regardless of quantity. Driver shall be given full and complete information regarding shipment and conditions in case of emergency.

AR 50-6 deals specifically with the shipment of chemical agents. Shipments of agent will be escorted in accordance with AR 740-32.

While the Chemical Research Development and Engineering Center, Department of the Army believes that the data contained herein are factual and the opinions expressed are those of qualified experts regarding the results of the tests conducted, the data are not to be taken as a warranty or representation for which the Department of the Army or Chemical Research Development Engineering Center assumes legal responsibility. They are offered solely for your consideration, investigation, and verification. Any use of these data and information must be determined by the user to be in accordance with applicable Federal, State, and local laws and regulations.

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Addendum A: Physiological Effects

ACUTE PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS:

          Site of Action      Signs and Symptoms

     Muscarine-like-

          Pupils              Miosis, marked, usually maximal (pinpoint),
                              sometimes unequal.

          Ciliary body        Frontal headache, eye pain on focusing, slight
                              dimness of vision, occasional nausea and vomiting.

          Conjunctivae        Hyperemia

          Nasal mucous membranes             Rhinorrhea, hyperemia

          Bronchial tree      Tighness in chest, sometimes with prolonged
                              wheezing, expiration suggestive of broncho-
                              constriction or increased secretion, cough. 

                              Following Systemic Absorption

          Bronchial tree      Tightness in chest, with prolonged wheezing,
                              expiration suggestive of broncho-constriction or
                              increased secretion, dyspnea, slight pain in chest,
                              increased, bronchial secretion, cough, pulmonary
                              edema, cyanosis.

          Gastrointestinal    Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps,
                              epigastric and substernal tightness (cardiospasm)
                              with "heartburn" and eructation, diarrhea, tenesmus,
                              involuntary defecation.

          Sweat glands        Increased sweating

          Salivary glands     Increased salivation

          Lacrimal glands     Increased lacrimation

          Heart               Slight bradycardia

          Pupils              Slight miosis, occasionally unequal, later maximal
                              miosis (pinpoint).

          Ciliary body        Blurring of vision

          Bladder             Frequent, involuntary micturition

     Nicotine-like

          Striated muscle     Easy fatigue, mild weakness, muscular twitching,
                              fasciculations, cramps, generalized weakness,
                              including muscles of respiration, with dyspnea and
                              cyanosis.

          Sympathetic ganglia Pallor, occasional elevation of blood pressure.

          Central Nervous system             Giddiness, tension, anxiety, jitteriness, restlessness,
                                             emotional lability, excessive dreaming, insomnia,
                                             nightmares, headaches, tremor, withdrawal and
                                             depression, bursts of slow waves of elevated
                                             voltage in EEG, especially on over-ventilation,
                                             drowsiness, difficult concentration, slowness on
                                             recall, confusion, slurred speech, ataxia,
                                             generalized weakness, coma, with absence of
                                             reflexes, Cheyne-Stokes respirations, convulsions,
                                             depression of respiratory and circulatory centers,
                                             with dyspnea, cyanosis, and fall in blood pressure.

CHRONIC PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS:

______________________________________________________________________________
                                             When Effects
Types of  Route     Description              Appear After
Effects   Absorption                         of Effects          Exposure
______________________________________________________________________________

Vapor     Lungs     Rhinorrhea, nasal Hyperemia                  One to several minutes
Local               tightness in chest, wheezing

Vapor     Eyes      Miosis, conjectival hyperemia                One to several minutes
Local               eye pain, frontal headache

Vapor     Lungs or  Muscarine-like, nicotine-like                Less than 1 min. to a few
min.
Systemic  eyes      and central nervous system                   after moderate or marked
                    effects.  (See 2a above) exposure: about 30 min. after
                                             mild exposure

Liquid    Eyes      Same as vapor effects    Instantly
Local

Liquid    Ingestion Gastrointestinal.  (See 2a above).           About 30 min. after ingestion
Local

Liquid    Skin      Local sweating and muscular                  3 min to 2 hours
Local               twitching

Liquid    Lungs     See 2a above             Several minutes
Sytemic

Liquid    Eyes      Same as for vapor        Several minutes
Systemic

Liquid    Skin      Generalized sweating     15 minutes to 2 hours
Systemic

Liquid    Ingestion Gastrointestinal (see 2a above)              15 minutes to 2 hours
Systemic
______________________________________________________________________________
Duration of Effects After
______________________________________________________________________________
Types of    Route of          Mild           Severe
Effects     Absorption        Exposure       Exposure
______________________________________________________________________________

Vapor       Lungs             A few hours    1 to 2 days
Local

Vapor       Eyes              Miosis -       3 to 14 days
Local                         24 hours       2 to 5 days

Vapor       Lungs or eyes     Several hours  8 days
Systemic

Liquid      Eyes              Similar to effects
Local                         of vapor

Liquid      Ingestion         3 days         5 days
Local

Liquid      Skin              3 days         5 days
Local

Liquid      Lungs                            1 to 5 days
Systemic

Liquid      Eyes                             2 to 4 days
Systemic

Liquid      Skin                             2 to 5 days
Systemic

Liquid      Ingestion                        3 to 5 days
Systemic

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Addendum B: First Aid Procedures

  1. Exposed personnel will be removed immediately to an uncontaminated atmosphere. Personnel handling casualty cases will give consideration to their own safety and will take precautions and employ the prerequisite protective equipment to avoid becoming exposed themselves.

    CAUTION: Due to the rapid effects of nerve agents, it is extremely important that decontamination of personnel not be delayed by attempting to blot off excessive agent prior to decontamination with sodium hypochlorite.

  2. The causalty will then be decontaminated by washing the contaminated areas with commercial liquid household bleach (nominal 5% solution hyprchlorite or 10 percent sodium carbonate solution) and flushing with clean water. Mask will be left on the victim until decontamination has been completed unless it has been determined that areas of the face were contaminated and the mask must be removed to facilitate decontamination. After decontamination, the contaminated clothing will be removed and skin contamination washed away. If possible, decontamination will be completed before the casualty is taken to the aid station of medical facility.

    CAUTION: Care must be taken when decontaminating facial areas to avoid getting the hypochlorite into the eye or mouth. Only clean water shall be used when flushing the eyes or mouth. Skin surfaces decontaminated with bleach should be thoroughly flushed with water to prevent skin irritation from the bleach.

  3. If there is no apparent breathing, artifical resuscitation will be started immediately (mouth-to-mouth, or with mechanical resuscitator). The situation will dictate method of choice, e.g., contaminated face. Do not use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation when facial contamination exists. When appropriate and trained personnel are available, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may be necessary.

  4. An individual who has received a known agent exposure or who exhibits definite signs or symptoms of agent exposure shall be given an intramuscular injection immediately with the MARK I kit auto-injectors.

    1. Some of the early symptoms of a vapor exposure may be rhinorrhea (runny nose) and/or tightness in the chest with shortness of breath (bronchial constriction).

    2. Some of the early symptoms of a percutaneous exposure may be local muscular twitching or sweating at the area of exposure followed by nausea or vomiting.

    3. Although myosis (pin-pointing of the pupils) may be an early sign of agent exposure, an injection shall not be administered when myosis is the only sign present. Instead, the individual shall be taken immediately to the medical facility for observation.

    4. Injections using the MARK I kit injectors (or atropine only if directed by the local physician) may be repeated at 5 to 20 minute intervals if signs and symptoms are progressing until three series of injections have been administered. No more injections will be given unless directed by medical personnel. In addition, a record will maintained of all injections given.

    5. Administer, in rapid succession, all three MARK I kit injectors (or atropine if directed by the local physician) in the case of SEVERE signs of agent exposure.

  5. If indicated, CPR should be started immediately. Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation should be used when approved mask-bag or oxygen delivery systems are not available. Do not use mouth-to-mouth resuscitation when facial contamination exists.

    CAUTION: Atropine does not act as a prophylactic and shall not be administered until an agent exposure has been ascertained.

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Addendum C: Additional Information for Thickened GD

TRADE NAME AND SYNONYMS: Thickened GD, TGD

HAZARDOUS INGREDIENTS: K125 (acryloid copolymer, 5%) is used to thicken the GD. K125 is not known to be a hazardous material except in a finely divided, powder form.

PHYSICAL DATA: Essential the same as GD except for viscosity. The viscosity of TGD is approximately 1180 centistokes.

FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA: Same as GD

HEALTH HAZARD DATA: Same as GD except for skin contact. For skin contact, don respiratory protective mask and remove contaminated clothing. Immediately scrape the TGD from the skin surface, then wash the contaminated surface with acetone. Administer Nerve Agent Antidote Kit, MARK I, only if local sweating and muscular twitching symptoms are observed. Seek medical attention IMMEDIATELY.

SPILL, LEAK AND DISPOSAL PROCEDURES: If spills or leaks of TGD occur, follow the same procedure as those for GD, but add the following step: Since TGD is not water soluble, dissolve the TGD in acetone prior to introducing any decontaminating solution. Containment of TGD is generally not necessary. Spilled TGD can be carefully scraped off the contaminated surface and placed in a drum with a fully removable head and a high density, polyethylene lining. The TGD can then be decontaminated after it has been dissolved in acetone, using the same procedures as for GD. Contaminated surfaces should be treated with acetone, then decontaminated using the same procedures as for GD.

SPECIAL PROTECTION INFORMATION: Same as GD.

SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS: Same as GD with the following addition. Handling the TGD requires careful observation of the "stringers" (elastic, thread-like attachments) formed when the agents are transferred or dispensed. These stringers must be broken cleanly before moving the contaminating device or dispensing device to another location, or unwanted contamination of a working surface will result.

TRANSPORTATION DATA: Same as GD.

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